The girl has been housebound for several months now. Though she managed to come to the clinic, but was seemingly restless and anxious, pacing the floor in the waiting area. She couldn’t see people using smartphones anywhere near her. She would think people are taking her pictures and use them for detrimental purposes. When she is in such situation, she experiences strong urges to grab the phone from others.
She does recognise those intrusive thoughts as irrational and could restrain herself from doing so. But like many other with OCD, she is staying home more and more to avoid such situations. When she first consulted a psychiatrist, it was about two years ago. She was quiet, introverted, sensitive, and repetitive in her speech, but wasn’t diagnosed as having OCD.
To really consider her current presentation, she seems to be having persecutory delusions (a common form of delusion in paranoid schizophrenia, where the person believes that ”he or she is being tormented, followed, tricked, spied on, or ridiculed.”).
So, how do you know or decide the diagnosis? Is it OCD or is it borderline psychotic of sorts?
Looking at the backgrounds, the mother who came with her said that she (the mother) has been “depressed” and taking psychiatric drugs for the past 10 years, it was mainly due to the stress caused by her daughter (only child). Though one of the mother’s symptoms, is compulsive washing(!), fear of contamination. It’s not difficult to imagine some OCD can be so severe and disabling leading to depression (the comorbidity rate is high anyway). But here through the mother at least a family history of OCD is exhibited.
In DSM-5, it is specified that OCD may be seen with: (i) good or fair insight, (ii) poor insight, or (iii) absent insight/delusional beliefs. In all previous editions of the DSM, the criteria for the diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder included the sufferer’s realization that their obsessions and compulsions are irrational or illogical. Now, absent insight/delusional beliefs can be part of an OCD diagnosis. Though we have all noticed that OCD sufferers’ levels of insight can change quickly, often depending on the circumstances and situations (e.g. the intrusive thought was felt completely real when she’s in the public noticing someone holding the phone VS when she’s at home thinking about that situation).
Some psychiatrists would prescribe both anti-depressants (serving as anti-OCD) and anti-psychotics. However, there were cases where OCD patients were first misdiagnosed as psychotic, and taking anti-psychotic very much worsened their OCD (though once they stopped the anti-psychotics and took anti-depressants at the right dosage, their OCD symptoms alleviated).
So time spent for detailed psychopathology and specific diagnosis would be of greatest importance. The presentation of suspiciousness (paranoia) as the main symptom suggested possibility of psychosis, however, the repetitive nature of the thought, which was stereotyped, causing severe distress, also the family history of OCD, pointed toward a greater possibility of obsessions. What is more difficult with this case is the absence of compulsions and reassurance seeking. And my final point, it’s not necessarily “either or”, it could be both! But still it takes much time and effort to really work that out.