Tag Archives: Mindfulness

关于“正念”的迷思

正念越来越流行,却也有越来越多关于“正念”的迷思:

  1. 正念=冥想:有成千上万的方法来练习正念,而冥想静坐只是其中一个方法。
  2. 正念源自于佛教:许多宗教也进行正念练习。但正念不是一个宗教的概念,它只是一个心理技术/状态。
  3. 正念=放松:就算在充满挑战的情况里,你感觉焦虑愤怒,但你还是可以正念地接纳一切,活在当下并与环境互动,而完全不感到放松。
  4. 正念用于控制想法,去除负面想法,带来更多积极正面的想法:正念帮助我们觉察我们的想法,允许想法来来去去,并能选择哪些想法可以帮助我们朝目标前进,而哪些想法我们可以放下。
  5. 正念用于控制情绪,带来更多积极的情绪、感觉美好快乐:正念在于更完整地体验生活,也就代表体验更完整地、不管是你喜欢的积极情绪(如:快乐、爱)或消极的情绪(如:悲伤、恐惧)。

 

想更了解正念?也可以看看这个:

冥想 VS 正念

 

How to deal with pop-up thought?

“How do I stop thinking?”

“I have so much thought! I can’t stay focus!”

“How do I control my mind? I feel like I’m losing it.”

“I can’t sleep. There are so many thoughts, I can’t help it”

Just as the heart is designed to pump, the brain is designed to think, and it throws you with thoughts every 1 or 2 seconds, you can’t really control those thoughts or stop them from popping up, what can you do about them? How can you stay focused better? How can you direct attention to the here and now, to the present moment, to the things you want to do?

The answer is pretty simple… We all hear it every now and then… You might even have tried or practiced it before…

 

 

 

 

“Mindfulness”

Yes, being mindful, noticing your thought, accepting them (no judging), then bringing your attention to the present moment. How can you achieve that?

“Practice”

Yes, you need to practice, keep doing it, whenever you remember, it doesn’t just happen overnight. You can start with some simple meditation, you may learn the Benson’s relaxation method (read this). Or you can try the Leaves on the Stream here (with recordings).

冥想 VS 正念

“如何区分正念与冥想?”

这是一个我被问过几次的问题,下面的解答是基于我的实践和理解。

从广义上讲,冥想有两种类型。一是集中注意力。例如,当你专注于你的呼吸,一个单词,一个咒语,一个烛光,你放开任何引起你注意的事物,并将你的注意力集中在这一个事物上。(这种类型的一个例子:本森放松法

另一种冥想,是广泛的注意力(意识)。这就像你处于没有在进行比赛的体育馆里。你看着这整个空间。你可以像观察者一样观察整个体验,不评判,不反应。你允许事物来去自如。

第二种冥想,就是一种正念练习!正念的定义通常包括处于当下、带着觉察、不批判和接受(不过度反应)。当你在进行河流上的飘叶时,你注意并观察着你脑海中正在发生的事情。你当然可以将它概括到你的日常生活中,注意到你在哪里,你在干嘛,觉察你的想法/感受等等。

你可以随时随地练习正念。带着正念地吃,喝,工作,打字,开车,锻炼,运动,行走(即处在当下,觉察,并接受)。但是,你不能冥想着进行这一切。

有些人在走路,跑步或游泳时可能会冥想。这可以是第一类型的冥想(集中、狭隘注意力)或第二类冥想(扩大注意力)。第一类,你可能会在心里重复“一,二,一,二,一,二……”,或把注意力放在你的呼吸。第二类,你观察你的整个经历,比如你的肌肉如何运动,你看到,听到什么,觉察你的感受等等。

我会说两者都是冥想,但只有第二类是正念。希望我有把我的理解厘清吧… 欢迎分享你的看法!

Mindfulness VS Meditation

“What’s the difference between mindfulness and meditation?”

One of the questions I was asked a few times, and this answer below is based on my practice and understanding.

There are two types of meditation, broadly speaking. One is with focused attention. So for example, when you focus on your breathing, a word, a prayer, the candle light, you let go of anything that comes into your attention, and keep redirecting your attention to the thing that you are focusing on. (One example of this type of meditation here).

Another type of meditation, is with widen attention (awareness). It’s like you are in a stadium when no game is being played. You watch the whole space. You watch your whole experience, like an observer, or like a third party, non-judging, and not reacting. You allow things to come and go.

This second type of meditation, is a mindfulness practice! The definition(s) of mindfulness generally includes being present, being aware, non-judgemental, and acceptance (not overly reactive). When you practice Leaves on the Stream, you are mindful of what’s going on in your mind. You can of course generalise this to your daily life, and be mindful of where you are, what you do, what you think/feel etc.

You can practice mindfulness anytime anywhere. Eating, drinking, working, typing, driving, exercising, walking mindfully (i.e. staying present, being aware of what you do, and being accepting). You can’t do all that while you meditate though.

Some people might meditate while they walk, run or swim. This can be with either first (focused, narrow attention) OR second type of meditation (broaden attention). With first, you might be saying “one, two, one, two, one, two…” in your mind, or noticing your breathing in and out. With second, you will be observing your whole experience, how your muscle move, what you see, hear, sense, how you feel etc.

I’d say both are meditation, but only the second one is being mindful. I hope I’ve made it clear?! Feel free to share your views!

河流上的飘叶

正念练习:河流上的飘叶(取自“接受与承诺疗法”Acceptance and Commitment therapy)

这是个闭眼练习。首先阅读说明,当你理解了这个练习的过程后,闭上眼睛开始。 (或者你可以使用这篇文章末尾的录音)

想象一下美丽、缓慢流动的溪流。水流过岩石,然后穿过山谷,周围有些大树。偶尔,风吹来,一片一片的叶子落入溪流中,随着河水漂流。想象一下,你正坐在那条小溪旁边,在天气很好的一天,看着河水的流动与树叶的飘落。

现在开始意识到你的想法(思维)。每当一个想法出现在你的头脑中时,想象把它写(或放)在其中一片叶子上。如果你用文字思考,把它们作为文字,轻轻地放在叶子上。如果头脑出现的是图像或画面,就将它们作为图像放在叶子上。目标是留在溪流旁边,让溪流上的树叶继续流动。不要试图让河流流得更快或更慢;不要试图以任何方式改变叶子上出现的东西。如果树叶消失,或者你的思绪飘到了其他地方,那就停下来、注意这发生了,然后再次回到溪流边,把刚刚的想法放到叶子上,让叶子随着河水流走。

(图像的生动或清晰程度无关紧要,只要有这个概念在就可以了– 觉察自己的想法,一旦发现它们就轻轻地放下)

继续进行至少5分钟。如果你现在已经了解说明,请闭上眼睛开始试试。

(练习后继续阅读)

当河流在流动,你也能注意到想法并轻轻地把想法放下时,这就是认知解离 (Cognitive defusion) 的时候。记得头脑本来就是设计来思考的,所以它总是会不断弹出各种想法,你虽然不能控制这点,但你能选择是否对这些想法作出反应,或者选择轻轻地放下它们。如果你认为“我做得不对”、“这个练习对我不起作用”或“我怎么会没有想法”,留意到它们也是你其中的一些想法,后退一步,把它们也放到落叶上。一些其它特别“粘”的想法(比较难以觉察和解离的想法),包括含强烈情绪的想法、比较性的想法等。

这里有两个中文版本的录音:

“河流上的飘叶”录音I

“河流上的飘叶”录音II

(类似的内容,只是前面的指示稍微不同;5-6秒后指示才开始)

多些练习,有问题的话,不妨在这留言。