Category Archives: Developmental Disorder

或许无关他们的学习技能?

“我希望我的孩子能够更好地学习……嗯……或者至少温习复习一点功课……”

有一天,一位焦虑的母亲问我是否可以帮助引导她的儿子更好地学习,为即将到来的考试作出更多努力。

你知道吗,如果你google一下,会有很多网站告诉你最好的学习习惯,顶尖的学习技巧,准备考试的技巧,有效的学习方法,记忆增强技巧,通过考试的必备条件,临时抱佛脚的复习技术等……

是的,有时他们需要一些帮助和提示,如何保持专注,不要分心,如何组织和管理他们的时间和笔记。但通常情况下,他们已经知道这一切,他们只是无法让自己跟着做。他们拖延,他们逃避,他们对抗……

为什么?

你有没有问过他们,“你想学习吗?”“你想从大学/学校毕业吗?”“你想要证书/文凭/学位吗?”

不想?好吧,如果你已经下定决心,那现在就退学吧,并且很确定你不会后悔对吗?还有,那退学后不上学了你想做什么?(注:不是威胁,别用威胁的语气,而是接受,接受你的孩子可以为自己的未来做决定、并承担后果)

想?那很棒!那就是你想要做的?为自己?不是为了取悦任何人,不是为了适应父母/家庭/社会。你意识到这是你为自己,为未来做的事情吗?不是为了妈妈,爸爸或邻居?没有人强迫你学习吧?

当然你不能直接问每个学生,对有些人可能有效,有些则你必须巧妙地调整你的说法。如果做得恰当,它几乎总是有效的,那么紧接着给他建立动机和更多积极的肯定,并在必要时加入学习技术。但很重要的,引导他们,帮他们澄清没有人强迫他们学习,他们可以自由决定是非常重要的。这个初始步骤至关重要!尤其是在青少年和年轻人中,当他们觉得自己被迫做某事时,他们变得“抵抗”、“叛逆”。

可能还有时候他们说他们不想学习,但他们想毕业并获得证书…….是的,当然,谁不是?我想要工资,但我不想每天早上6点起床去上班。我想环游世界,但我不想每天工作。我想长寿但不想照顾我的健康,想放任的吃喝不运动。我想早点退休但不想存钱…….向他们展示这个世界上的每个人都在做同样的事情,我们经常为未来的满足和痛快而需现在努力。但是,如果最终目的是你的目标,那么您现在就要开始努力。这是为了你自己,为了你的未来,而不是其他任何人。

当有动力的时候,也试着让孩子(学生)大声说说:

我想学习!

VS

我必须读书!

看看他们是否觉得两者有什么不同……

 

“如何更好地学习?如何激励孩子学习?如何避免拖延学习?如何帮助我的孩子更好地学习?“

亲爱的父母,您可以尝试一下,或者如果您需要任何帮助,请与我联系。当然还有各位学生,你也可以为自己厘清这一点!

 

原文英文版

泛自闭症障碍 (Autism Spectrum Disorder)

一个蛮常出现的情况,就是大人要是有些什么心理问题,就会被说成“抑郁症”(或“忧郁”),不管他的症状是闷闷不乐,竭斯底里,情绪高昂,自杀念头,出现幻觉,嫉妒心强,时好时坏…… 所以很多时候问当事人或其家属他有什么问题的时候,最常出现的答案,就是“抑郁症”(往往仔细问过症状后,其与“抑郁症”风马牛不相及!)

而孩子呢?这种情况也是有的,只是一般他们会被标签的是“自闭”(或“过动”,其次),不管他的症状是安静,闷闷不乐,不爱社交,过动,不听话,无法沟通,爱说谎,智力偏低,生活无法自理… 情况不严重的时候,就被称为“有点自闭”…

根据DSM-V (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, 美国精神协会的精神障碍与统计手册,第五版),自闭症(现在已改称Autism Spectrum Disorder, 泛自闭症障碍*,本文继续简称自闭症)从孩提早期,与他人的接触在一定程度上影响了患者几乎每个方面的功能。 社会关系从轻度损害到几乎完全缺乏互动。 有些可能只是减少分享,而一些患者则完全不能主动接触他人或回应他人。 他们说话的时候,倾向于不用一些大多数人常用的身体信号,比如 眼神接触,手势,微笑和点头。 自闭症患者难以在各种不同的社交情景中调整他们的行为; 他们可能缺乏对其他人的兴趣,并且几乎没有朋友。

重复和狭小的专注点是他们的活动和兴趣的特征。 他们不喜欢/抵抗日常微小的变化(比如每天午饭点一样的菜,或不停地重复已经回答的问题。)他们可能被一些动态(如旋转)或微小物体所着迷。 对刺激(疼痛,巨响,极端温度)的反应可能过于微弱或过度。 一些非常专注于感官体验:他们对特定的视觉动态或特定气味着迷,有些或者恐惧或拒绝特定的声音或特定物体表面的触觉。 他们可能使用怪异的言语或表现出刻板的行为,例如拍手,身体摇摆或像回音般重复他人的话(echolalia)。

自闭症最主要是从沟通社交机体行为这三方面来判断,有可能伴随或不伴随智力缺陷,伴随或不伴随语言缺陷。

*Autism Spectrum Disorder, 泛自闭症障碍,或自闭症系列障碍,表达了自闭症的多元性。

马来西亚自闭障碍的干预训练中心

Intervention Programmes for Autism in Malaysia

It just happened that I was doing a brief research on the internet and among my friends who are in the field, so here is some information that might be useful to those who are looking for early intervention programmes for children diagnosed with Autism. (It is up-to-date on April 2016, within Klang Valley only).

I’d advise to take your child and visit the centre, get a feel of how it’s like on a typical day, on top of enquiring what they offer and how they charge. If possible, bring someone who knows a bit more in the field!

  • Autism Link, Petaling Jaya (www.autism.my)
    • Using Applied Behavioural Analysis (ABA), 1:1 individually tailored
    • Parental training weekly
    • Monday – Friday (3 hours class)
    • Morning RM5500/month; Afternoon 4800/month; Full day 8500/month
    • Contact: 016-6100309 / 03-7957 0795; Email: enquiry@autism.my
    • According to a ABA therapist friend who used to work there, this centre is strongly recommendable if parents/family is financially capable.
  • Hatching, Jaya One, Petaling Jaya (www.HatchingCenter.com)
    • Modified ABA, 1:4 group (1 teacher/therapist, 4 children)
    • Workshop for parents/children monthly
    • 9am-12pm or 1pm-4pm RM1500/month; 9am-4pm RM2000/month
    • Make appointment for free pre-enrolment assessment (1 hour)
    • Contact: 011-1133 8518
  • ALRITE, USJ (www.alrite4kidz.com)
    • 3 hour or 6 hour session
    • Contact: 03- 8020 6666
    • I called up and was told that they don’t discuss the fee structures over the phone (it kind of makes me suspect …), to call up for appointment.
  • Bright Stars, Ara Damansara (www.brightstars.my)
    • Using ABA, the sun-rise programme; 1:1 or 1:2 individualised
    • 9am-12pm or 12:30pm-3:30pm, RM2900/month; 9am-3pm RM5200/month
    • Contact: 012-3222405 / 03-78590089
    • See brightstars.my/about_the_program (it appears to be the only centre that publishes their pricing online!)
  • The National Autism Society of Malaysia (NASOM) (www.nasom.org.my)
    • Many centres all over Malaysia, including one in Miri, Sarawak. One-stop assessment/diagnosis centre is at Setia Alam (603-3359 3987)
    • Star programme, 1:3
    • Monday-Friday 7.30am-12pm or 1pm-5pm (RM318/month, half day only)
    • May need to be put in waiting list but they have intake almost every month throughout the year
    • Note: The centre that I called up to enquire is Taman OUG centre (03-78317928 / 03-78327928)
  • Freelance ABA therapists
    • Usually much more affordable, so it would suit those family with financial constraint.
    • Some might be able to have sessions at home.
    • Standard, facility, materials used, quality, service might be compromised (or not!!)
    • It might be good to do a review (re-assessment) every 6 months or so to check the child’s progress
    • Where to find? Check the comment section below!

Disclaimer: I am in no way involved in any of the abovementioned centres and their therapists, I have not personally known anyone who had used their services so I cannot guarantee their service quality and outcome. I’m only providing different options to those who might need it, feel free to add your comments or recommend other centres below.

Introducing “House Rules”

By Jodi Picoult

By Jodi Picoult

I picked up this book from the Popular RM5 Book Fiesta last year (yes, for RM5!). It is a fiction by Jodi Picoult (this is my first tasting of her book!).

The book is about a boy named Jacob Hunt, who has got Asperger’s Syndrome – the main reason I bought this book as I really want to learn more about the Syndrome. But then the second reason, is that Jacob is also brilliant in forensic analysis – this is my (hidden) interest back in the uni. Haha!

I’d say I’ve really enjoyed reading it. It gave me perspectives from different persons (including the mother who is the main caretaker, the brother who lives together, and even Jacob (how he thinks or analyzes a case for example, sometimes I’d say it all makes sense; it’s us “normal people” who are inconsistent and weird)! and some other characters as well). There’s so much details in it. I’m sure some people would find it repetitive, but this could be how living with someone with the Syndrome is like – you have to set boundaries (house rules!), be repetitive and consistent etc! So it really gives you a sense about Asperger’s Syndrome, plus a terrible murder case in which the evidence was pointing to Jacob…

Asperger Syndrome

Two of the tutors came to the mother today and said that they were unable to help the boy with his studies as his attention span is too short, he keeps get distracted.

This is a boy of 13 with Asperger Syndrome which was diagnosed when he was 6. With medication the boy still does not improve significantly after all the years. In school, he disturbs his classmates by walking around the classroom and talking to them while teachers are teaching. He also flips his books quickly (without reading them, but he likes creating that sound while flipping books), tears and folds books and papers. The teachers said he isn’t able to do any independent work, although he appears to have adequate intellectual abilities just like his classmates. Unfortunately he is never able to get seated down for a short test. The teachers don’t know what to do to help him, and he makes no friends in school due to his annoying behaviours.

Tutors were hired to assist him in school and to give tuition at home, but a few have left for the same reason as above – he’s too difficult to manage, to be helped. He can’t concentrate in studies or perhaps in “doing anything meaningful”, as how the mother termed it. He scratches himself badly, almost obsessed with this habit.

The parents are feeling helpless. If the medicine couldn’t touch him at all, what else would?

IPad Addiction

Came across this article and think it’s really worth sharing, also a very good case study reflecting the growing up environment of infants/toddlers nowadays:

‘The day I realised my toddler was addicted to the iPad’: Three-year-old William tugged at the duvet and woke his father demanding the tablet… at 4am

Some food for thought: How do we help the younger generations to develop healthy relationship with those advanced gadgets? How do we balance while using them as educational or entertaining tools (not iNanny!) but not overusing leading to obsession and/or addiction?

(To the educational psychologists and child experts: is this going to be a newly added and researched Developmental Disorder?!)